The development of the C-to-C Roll as recounted by Ken Kastorff:

In the early 1970’s I was participating in winter pool slalom events in Wisconsin. At that time teaching the roll was all one motion and it was hard to break down. One night I learned the C-1 roll so that I could compete in the C-1 class. After executing successful C-1 rolls, I began to work through adopting the C-1 roll to a whitewater kayak.

When executing a C-1 roll, the paddle swings out perpendicular to the side while in mid air, then the paddle flips over into a low brace followed by a hip snap. It seemed that if that could be done with a kayak, the roll would be stronger and more reliable. Getting into a kayak, I tried the same set up as a C-1 roll prior to doing the hipsnap, then used the same hipsnap motion–only arching the back rather than coming forward.

Basically the adaptation just changed the timing of what people were doing with the roll at the time. At that point I started implementing it in teaching and found I was teaching people much more quickly and they understood what they were doing.

When I arrived at the Nantahala Outdoor Center in 1975, I brought the principal with me.Soon I seemed to have earned the reputation of being able to “teach anyone how to roll.” There were people on the NOC staff that I would bet a steak dinner that if I could teach them how to roll in less than 30-minutes, they had to buy me a steak dinner. For a poor river staff person, I soon found myself enjoying many steak dinners!